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Iron Manganese Filter

Iron and manganese in drinking water are normally not considered to be a health concern. However, there are a number of problems which can occur if too much iron and manganese are present in the water. These include:

  • staining of laundry and plumbing fixtures;
  • discolouration of the water;
  • taste to the water;
  • growth of iron bacteria is encouraged;
  • formation of deposits in distribution systems and plumbing;
  • interference with treatment processes such as disinfection; and
  • fouling of water softeners.

In order to avoid the above problems, objectives for the concentration of iron and manganese in water for human consumptive or hygienic use have been established

The treatment can be performed by various processes. In the traditional process, Fe and Mn in groundwater are initially oxidized using aeration and/or chemical oxidant such as chlorine (Cl2), hypochlorite (OCl-), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone (O3) or potassium permanganate (KMnO4) following the remove by filtration.

It is possible to oxidize with oxygen in air, the reaction is below;


4 Fe+2 + O2+10H2O → 4 Fe(OH)3 + 8 H+

6Mn+2 + 2O2 + 6H2O → 6MnO2 + 12H+



Required chemical (mg) for the

oxidation of 1 mg Fe+2

Required chemical (mg) for the 

oxidation of 1 mg Mn+2

Oxygen, O2 0.14 0.29
Chlorine, Cl2 0.62 1.30
Calcium Hypochlorite, Ca(OCl)2 0.64 1.30
Sodium Hypochlorite, NaOCl 0.67 1.36
Chlorine Dioxide, ClO2 1.21 2.45
Potasyum permanganat, KMnO4 0.91 1.91